DIGITAL DIVIDE IN PAKISTAN: BARRIERS TO ICT ADOPTION
Keywords:digital divide,, demographic factors,, regional,, Pakistan
This study aims to analyse the impact of various socioeconomic, regional, and demographic factors on the digital divide in Pakistan. The digital divide refers to the disparity in individual’s access to mobile devices and internet-enabled mobile technology. The study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) survey collected in 2019-20. The estimates of the Multinomial Logit model suggest that a lack of gender parity is a potential source of the digital divide. Higher education is associated with greater access to internet-enabled mobile devices. Moreover, being employed increases the likelihood of digital inclusion. It is worth noting that the urban-rural gap and provincial disparity also contribute to the digital divide. Higher household income and wages of individual is also increase the likelihood of digital inclusion. On the other hand, age plays a significant role in determining the digital divide among individuals. Younger individuals are more likely to be digitally included than older individuals, primarily due to differences in self-efficacy. The study also explores various employment statuses as potential contributors to the digital divide among individuals. The study identified marginalised users and proposed measures that need to be undertaken to digitally include these individuals.