LEAN MANAGEMENT READINESS ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK FOR HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

Authors

  • MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ Assistant Proforessor, Faculty of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan Author
  • ADEEL AKHTAR Assistatn Professor, Department of Commerce, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan Author
  • MUHAMMAD ISMAIL Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan Author
  • MUHAMMAD AWAIS Assistant Proforessor, Faculty of Management Sciences, Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan Author

Keywords:

Humanitarian Organizations(HOs), Islamic Philosophy of HOs, Lean Management Readiness AssessmentFramework,, Humanitarian Organizations Logistics and Supply Chain Management (HO-LSCM), Lean Philosophy in HOs

Abstract

Humanitarian organizations (HOs) are often under pressure from stakeholders to utilize their funds efficiently. Adoption of Lean Management (LM) practices is often an effective way to increase efficiency in the utilization of financial and tangible resources. HOs intending to adopt LM must have certain practices in place before implementation of LM. This research developed a framework to measure the readiness of an HO to adopt LM in logistics and supply chain management (LSCM) system because LSCM is considered to be the most expensive part of HOs operations. The Humanitarian Organization Lean Management Readiness Assessment (HOLMRA) framework has been developed through in-depth interviews with supply chain management professionals in HOs in combination with a detailed review of the relevant literature. The literature review establishes the great value of LM in any organization. Seven factors are found to be the most relevant critical success factors (CSFs) for measuring the HOs readiness to adopt LM. The seven CSFs are: processes management, planning and control management, donor and community relationship management, supplier relationship management, top management, human resource management and communication management. CSFs assessment is associated with LM techniques. Based on discussions with HOs professionals, 7 CSFs and 35 LM elements were subsequently synthesised into the HOLMRA framework. Adoption of the HOLMRA framework provides efficient use of resources for HOs. The seven CSFs identified for assessment of HOs supply chain operations are: Process Management, Planning and Control Management, Donor and Community Relationship Management, Supplier Relationship Management, Human Resource Management, Communication Management, and Leadership Management. Each of these CSFs in turn consists of key Lean Elements. CSFs and their respective Lean Elements, explained and demonstrated with practical examples from the field, form a solid framework for understanding and assessing LM readiness in HOs supply chain operations.

References

Achanga, P., Shehab, E., Roy, R., & Nelder, G. (2006). Critical success factors for lean implementation within SMEs. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 17(4), 460-471.

Al-Najem, M. (2012). Investigating the factors affecting readiness for lean system adoption within Kuwaiti small and mediumsized manufacturing industries. (PhD Dissertation), University of Portsmouth, UK.

Al-Najem, M., Dhakal, H., & Bennett, N. (2012). The role of culture and leadership in lean transformation: a review and assessment model. International Journal of Lean Thinking, 3(1), 119-138.

Al-Najem, M., Dhakal, H., Labib, A., & Bennett, N. (2013). Lean readiness level within Kuwaiti manufacturing industries. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 4(3), 280-320.

Altay, N., Gunasekaran, A., Dubey, R., & Childe, S. J. (2018). Agility and resilience as antecedents of supply chain performance under moderating effects of organizational culture within the humanitarian setting: a dynamic capability view. Production Planning & Control, 29(14), 1158-1174.

Ali, A. & Naeem, M.Z. (2017). Trade Liberalization and Fiscal Management of Pakistan: A Brief Overview. Policy Brief-Department of Economics, PU, Lahore. 2017 (1), 1-6.

Ali, A. (2011). Disaggregated import demand functions of Pakistan; An empirical Analysis. M-Phil Thesis, NCBA&E, Lahore, Pakistan, 1-70.

Ali, A. (2015). The impact of macroeconomic instability on social progress: an empirical analysis of Pakistan. (Doctoral dissertation, National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore).

Ali, A. (2018). Issue of Income Inequality Under the Perceptive of Macroeconomic Instability: An Empirical Analysis of Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 56(1), 121-155.

Ali, A. and Bibi, C. (2017). Determinants of Social Progress and its Scenarios under the role of Macroeconomic Instability: Empirics from Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review 55 (2), 505-540.

Ali, A., & Ahmad, K. (2014). The Impact of Socio-Economic Factors on Life Expectancy in Sultanate of Oman: An Empirical Analysis. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 22(2), 218-224.

Ali, A., & Audi, M. (2016). The Impact of Income Inequality, Environmental Degradation and Globalization on Life Expectancy in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis. International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research, 4 (4), 182-193.

Ali, A., & Audi, M. (2018). Macroeconomic Environment and Taxes Revenues in Pakistan: An Application of ARDL Approach. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 7(1), 30-39.

Ali, A., & Rehman, H. U. (2015). Macroeconomic instability and its impact on the gross domestic product: an empirical analysis of Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 285-316.

Ali, A., & Şenturk, I. (2019). Justifying the Impact of Economic Deprivation, Maternal Status and Health infrastructure on Under-Five Child Mortality in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis. Bulletin of Business and Economics, 8(3), 140-154.

Ali, A., & Zulfiqar, K. (2018). An Assessment of Association between Natural Resources Agglomeration and Unemployment in Pakistan. Pakistan Vision, 19(1), 110-126.

Ali, A., Ahmed, F., & Rahman, F. U. (2016). Impact of Government Borrowing on Financial Development (A case study of Pakistan). Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 5(3), 135-143.

Ali, A., Audi, M., & Roussel, Y. (2021). Natural Resources Depletion, Renewable Energy Consumption and Environmental Degradation: A Comparative Analysis of Developed and Developing World. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 11(3), 251-260.

Ali, A., Audi, M., Bibi, C., & Roussel, Y. (2021). The Impact of Gender Inequality and Environmental Degradation on Human Well-being in the Case of Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 11(2), 92-99.

Ali, A., Mujahid, N., Rashid, Y., & Shahbaz, M. (2015). Human capital outflow and economic misery: Fresh evidence for Pakistan. Social Indicators Research, 124(3), 747-764.

Audi, M., Ali, A., & Roussel, Y. (2021). Measuring the Tax Buoyancy: Empirics from South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Empirical Economics Letters, 20(12).

Anand, G. a. K., R. . ((2009)). Development of a framework for lean manufacturing systems. Int. J. Services and Operations Management, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp.687–716.

Angelis, J., Conti, R., Cooper, C., & Gill, C. (2011). Building a high-commitment lean culture. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 22(5), 569-586.

Anholon, R., & Sano, A. T. (2016). Analysis of critical processes in the implementation of lean manufacturing projects using project management guidelines. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 84(9-12), 2247-2256.

Antai, I., Mutshinda, C., & Owusu, R. (2015). A 3-R principle for characterizing failure in relief supply chains’ response to natural disasters. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 5(2), 234-252. doi:10.1108/jhlscm-07-2014-0028

Badurdeen, F., Wijekoon, K., & Marksberry, P. (2011). An analytical hierarchy process-based tool to evaluate value systems for lean transformations. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 22(1), 46-65.

Barnett, M., & Duvall, R. (2005). Power in international politics. International organization, 59(1), 39-75.

Belekoukias, I., Garza-Reyes, J. A., & Kumar, V. (2014). The impact of lean methods and tools on the operational performance of manufacturing organisations. International Journal of Production Research, 52(18), 5346-5366.

Benson, R., & Kulkarni, N. S. (2011). Understanding Operational Waste from a Lean Biopharmaceutical Perspective. Pharmaceutical Engineering, 31(6), 74-82.

Bessant, J., Caffyn, S., Gilbert, J., Harding, R., & Webb, S. (1994). Rediscovering continuous improvement. Technovation, 14(1), 17-29.

Bhasin, S. (2011). Measuring the Leanness of an organisation. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 2(1), 55-74.

Bhuiyan, N., & Baghel, A. (2005). An overview of continuous improvement: from the past to the present. Management decision, 43(5), 761-771.

Birgün Barla, S. (2003). A case study of supplier selection for lean supply by using a mathematical model. Logistics Information Management, 16(6), 451-459.

Blumenthal, B. (2003). Investing in capacity building: A guide to high-impact approaches: Foundation Center.

Cairns, B. H., Margaret Hutchison, Romayne Tricker, Mike. (2005). Improving performance? The adoption and implementation of quality systems in UK nonprofits. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 16(2), 135-151.

Cao, M. V., Mark A Zhang, Qingyu Ragu-Nathan, TS. (2010). Supply chain collaboration: conceptualisation and instrument development. International Journal of Production Research, 48(22), 6613-6635.

ChangeUp, C. B. (2004). Infrastructure Framework for the Voluntary and Community Sector: Home Office.

Christopher, M., & Towill, D. (2001). An integrated model for the design of agile supply chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 31(4), 235-246.

Coetzee, R., Van der Merwe, K., & Van Dyk, L. (2016). Lean implementation strategies: how are the Toyota Way principles addressed? South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 27(3), 79-91.

Commission, D. (1996). Meeting the challenge of change: Voluntary action into the 21st century: Report of the Commission on the Future of the Voluntary Sector in England. Retrieved from NCVO: London:

Cooper, M. C., Lambert, D. M., & Pagh, J. D. (1997). Supply chain management: more than a new name for logistics. The international journal of logistics management, 8(1), 1-14.

Covey, S. (2011). The 7 habits of highly effective teens: Simon and Schuster.

Cozzolino, A. (2012). Humanitarian logistics and supply chain management Humanitarian Logistics (pp. 5-16): Springer.

Cozzolino, A., Rossi, S., & Conforti, A. (2012). Agile and lean principles in the humanitarian supply chain. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 2(1), 16-33. doi:10.1108/20426741211225984

Denison, D. R., & Mishra, A. K. (1995). Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organization science, 6(2), 204-223.

Drew, J., McCallum, B., & Roggenhofer, S. (2016). Journey to lean: making operational change stick: Springer.

Eisinger, P. (2002). Organizational capacity and organizational effectiveness among street-level food assistance programs. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 31(1), 115-130.

Elnadi, M., & Shehab, E. (2014). A conceptual model for evaluating product-service systems leanness in UK manufacturing companies. Procedia CIRP, 22, 281-286.

Emiliani, M. (1998). Lean behaviors. Management decision, 36(9), 615-631.

Ferdousi, F., & Ahmed, A. (2010). A manufacturing strategy: an overview of related concepts, principles and techniques. Asian Journal of Business Management, 2(2), 35-40.

Forza, C. (1996). Work organization in lean production and traditional plants: what are the differences? International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(2), 42-62.

Found, P., & Harrison, R. (2012). Understanding the lean voice of the customer. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 3(3), 251-267.

Fujimoto, T. (1999). The evolution of a manufacturing system at Toyota: Oxford university press.

Furlan, A., Vinelli, A., & Dal Pont, G. (2011). Complementarity and lean manufacturing bundles: an empirical analysis. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 31(8), 835-850.

Gligor, D., Gligor, N., Holcomb, M., & Bozkurt, S. (2019). Distinguishing between the concepts of supply chain agility and resilience. The International Journal of Logistics Management.

Golicic, S. L., & Medland, S. (2007). Size might matter: A case study of lean implementation in an SME. Society for Marketing Advances Proceedings, 261-264.

Gossler, T., Wakolbinger, T., & Burkart, C. (2020). Outsourcing in humanitarian logistics–status quo and future directions. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management.

Gotzamani, K. D., & Tsiotras, G. D. (2001). An empirical study of the ISO 9000 standards’ contribution towards total quality management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(10), 1326-1342.

Gunasekaran, A., Dubey, R., Fosso Wamba, S., Papadopoulos, T., Hazen, B. T., & Ngai, E. W. (2018). Bridging humanitarian operations management and organisational theory: Taylor & Francis.

Gurumurthy, A., & Kodali, R. (2009). Application of benchmarking for assessing the lean manufacturing implementation. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 16(2), 274-308.

Haavisto, I., & Kovács, G. (2019). Sustainability in humanitarian supply chains Handbook on the Sustainable Supply Chain: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Harmsen, E. (2008). Islam, civil society and social work: Muslim voluntary welfare associations in Jordan between patronage and empowerment: Amsterdam University Press.

Hayes, R. H., & Pisano, G. P. (1994). Beyond world-class: the new manufacturing strategy. Harvard business review, 72(1), 77-86.

Hoefer, R. (2000). Accountability in action?: Program evaluation in nonprofit human service agencies. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 11(2), 167-177.

Hooi, C. A. C., & Bakar, A. H. A. (2015). Linking organizational culture to lean implementation in the Malaysian construction industry: a conceptual framework. Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(4), 102-105.

Hopp, W. J., & Spearman, M. L. (2004). To pull or not to pull: what is the question? Manufacturing & service operations management, 6(2), 133-148.

Hunter, S. L., & Black, J. (2007). Lean Remanufacturing: a cellular case study. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems, 6(02), 129-144.

Jabnoun, N. (2001). Values underlying continuous improvement. The TQM Magazine, 13(6), 381-388.

Jones, C., Medlen, N., Merlo, C., Robertson, M., & Shepherdson, J. (1999). The lean enterprise. BT Technology Journal, 17(4), 15-22.

Karim, A., & Arif-Uz-Zaman, K. (2013). A methodology for effective implementation of lean strategies and its performance evaluation in manufacturing organizations. Business Process Management Journal, 19(1), 169-196.

Kent, R. C. (2004). International humanitarian crises: two decades before and two decades beyond. International Affairs, 80(5), 851-869.

Khan, M., Lee, H. Y., & Bae, J. H. (2019). The role of transparency in humanitarian logistics. Sustainability, 11(7), 2078.

Kilpatrick, J. (2003). Lean principles. Utah Manufacturing Extension Partnership, 68, 1-5.

Knuf, J. (2000). Benchmarking the lean enterprise: Organizational learning at work. Journal of Management in Engineering, 16(4), 58-71.

Kumar, M., Antony, J., Singh, R., Tiwari, M., & Perry, D. (2006). Implementing the Lean Sigma framework in an Indian SME: a case study. Production Planning and Control, 17(4), 407-423.

Kundu, G., & Manohar, B. M. (2012). Critical Success Factors For Implementing Lean Practices In It Support Services. International Journal for Quality Research, 6(4).

Kunz, N. (2019). An automated quantitative content analysis process for humanitarian logistics research. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management.

Laguir, I., Stekelorum, R., & El Baz, J. (2020). Going green? Investigating the relationships between proactive environmental strategy, GSCM practices and performances of third-party logistics providers (TPLs). Production Planning & Control, 1-14.

Lassiter, V. C. (2007). Th Role of Process Improvement in the Nonprofit Organization. (Master of Science in Organizational Dynamics), University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia.

Lewis, W. G., Pun, K. F., & Lalla, T. (2006). Exploring soft versus hard factors for TQM implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises. International Journal of productivity and performance management, 55(7), 539-554.

Liker, J. K. (2004). The toyota way: Esensi.

Liker, J. K., & Hoseus, M. (2009). Human resource development in Toyota culture. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 10(1), 34-50.

Listani Jayadi, E., Sadat, N., & Richit, H. (2020). Humanitarian Supply Chain: Improvement of Lead Time Effectiveness and Costs Efficiency: A multiple case study on the preparedness stage of humanitarian organizations with their partners.

Losonci, D., & Demeter, K. (2013). Lean production and business performance: international empirical results. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, 23(3), 218-233.

Miltenburg, J. (2001). U-shaped production lines: A review of theory and practice. International journal of production economics, 70(3), 201-214.

The Promise of Lean Experimentation (Stanford Social Innovation Review 2015).

Myerson, P. (2012). Lean Supply chain & Logistics Management. United State of America: McGraw-Hill.

Najam, A. (1996). Understanding the third sector: Revisiting the prince, the merchant, and the citizen. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 7(2), 203-219.

Nerfin, M. (1987). Neither prince nor merchant: citizen. Development Dialogue, 1, 170-195.

Nordin, N., Deros, B. M., & Wahab, D. A. (2010). A survey on lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian automotive industry. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 1(4), 374.

Ohno, T. (1988). Toyota production system: beyond large-scale production: crc Press.

Oloruntoba, R., Glenn Richey, R., & Gray, R. (2009). Customer service in emergency relief chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 39(6), 486-505. doi:10.1108/09600030910985839

Oppenheim, B. W., Murman, E. M., & Secor, D. A. (2011). Lean enablers for systems engineering. Systems Engineering, 14(1), 29-55.

Papadopoulou, T., & Özbayrak, M. (2005). Leanness: experiences from the journey to date. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 16(7), 784-807.

Parris, A. (2013). Improving processes for good in East Africa. The TQM Journal, Vol. 25 (Iss 5), pp.458 - 472. doi:10.1108/TQM-11-2012-0101

Paton, R. (2003). Managing and measuring social enterprises: Sage.

Pettersen, J. (2009). Defining lean production: some conceptual and practical issues. The TQM Journal, 21(2), 127-142.

Pojasek, R. B. (2003). Lean, six sigma, and the systems approach: Management initiatives for process improvement. Environmental Quality Management, 13(2), 85-92.

Power, G., Maury, M., & Maury, S. (2002). Operationalising bottom-up learning in international NGOs: barriers and alternatives. Development in Practice, 12(3-4), 272-284.

Radeka, K. (2010). The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development by Donald G. Reinertsen. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(1), 137-139.

Radnor, Z., & Walley, P. (2008). Learning to walk before we try to run: adapting lean for the public sector. Public money and management, 28(1), 13-20.

Rother, M., & Harris, R. (2001). Creating continuous flow: An action guide for managers, engineers & production associates: Lean Enterprise Institute.

Salaheldin, S. I., & Mukhalalati, B. A. (2009). The Implementation of TQM in the Qatari Healthcare Sector. Journal of Accounting, Business & Management, 16(2).

Salem, O., Solomon, J., Genaidy, A., & Minkarah, I. (2006). Lean construction: From theory to implementation. Journal of Management in Engineering, 22(4), 168-175.

Saurin, T. A., Marodin, G. A., & Ribeiro, J. L. D. (2011). A framework for assessing the use of lean production practices in manufacturing cells. International Journal of Production Research, 49(11), 3211-3230.

Sajid, A. & Ali, A. (2018). Inclusive Growth and Macroeconomic Situations in South Asia: An Empirical Analysis. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 7(3), 97-109.

Şentürk, İ., & Ali, A. (2021). Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis. Sosyoekonomi, 29(49), 85-111.

Shah, R., & Ward, P. T. (2003). Lean manufacturing: context, practice bundles, and performance. Journal of operations management, 21(2), 129-149.

Sigala, I. F., & Wakolbinger, T. (2019). Outsourcing of humanitarian logistics to commercial logistics service providers. Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management.

Smalley, A. (2004). Creating level pull: a lean production-system improvement guide for production-control, operations, and engineering professionals: Lean Enterprise Institute.

Soriano‐Meier, H., & Forrester, P. L. (2002). A model for evaluating the degree of leanness of manufacturing firms. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 13(2), 104-109. doi:10.1108/09576060210415437

Spear, S., & Bowen, H. K. (1999). Decoding the DNA of the Toyota production system. Harvard business review, 77(5), 96-106.

Suifan, T., Saa’da, R., Alazab, M., Sweis, R., Abdallah, A., & Alhyari, S. (2020). Quality of Information Sharing, Agility, and Sustainability of Humanitarian Aid Supply Chains: An Empirical Investigation. Int. J Sup. Chain. Mgt. Vol, 9(5), 1.

Tawfik Mady, M. (2009). Quality management practices: An empirical investigation of associated constructs in two Kuwaiti industries. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 26(3), 214-233.

Toyota. (2005). Environmental and Social Report: Relations with Employees. Retrieved from Tokyo, Japan:

Upadhye, N., Deshmukh, S. G., & Garg, S. (2010). Lean manufacturing system for medium size manufacturing enterprises: an Indian case. International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, 5(5), 362-375.

Vaghefi, M. R., Woods, L. A., & Huellmantel, A. (2000). Toyota story 2: Still winning the productivity game. Business Strategy Review, 11(1), 59-70.

Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2006). Humanitarian aid logistics: supply chain management in high gear†. Journal of the Operational research Society, 57(5), 475-489.

Wing, K. T. (2004). Assessing the effectiveness of capacity-building initiatives: Seven issues for the field. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(1), 153-160.

Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your organisation. Simon and Shuster, New York, NY, 397.

Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (2010). Lean thinking: banish waste and create wealth in your corporation: Simon and Schuster.

Wong, Y. C., Wong, K. Y., & Ali, A. (2009). A study on lean manufacturing implementation in the Malaysian electrical and electronics industry. European Journal of Scientific Research, 38(4), 521-535.

Yoshimori, M. (2005). Does corporate governance matter? Why the corporate performance of Toyota and Canon is superior to GM and Xerox. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 13(3), 447-457.

Zhang, Q., Irfan, M., Khattak, M. A. O., Abbas, J., Zhu, X., & Shah, M. S. (2012). Critical success factors for successful Lean Six Sigma implementation in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 4(1), 117-124.

Zhang, Z., Waszink, A., & Wijngaard, J. (2000). An instrument for measuring TQM implementation for Chinese manufacturing companies. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 17(7), 730-755.

Zu, X., Robbins, T. L., & Fredendall, L. D. (2010). Mapping the critical links between organizational culture and TQM/Six Sigma practices. International journal of production economics, 123(1), 86-106.

Downloads

Published

2021-09-30

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

SHAFIQ, M. ., AKHTAR, A. ., ISMAIL, M. ., & AWAIS, M. . (2021). LEAN MANAGEMENT READINESS ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK FOR HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 10(3), 151-171. https://bbejournal.com/BBE/article/view/293

Similar Articles

1-10 of 302

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.