Socio-Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Economic Growth: An Evidence from Pakistan


  • Muhammad Atif Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi, Pakistan Author
  • Afaq Ali Khan Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi, Pakistan Author
  • Sibghatullah Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi, Pakistan Author
  • Saeed Ahmed Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi, Pakistan Author
  • Muhammad Yaqoob Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi, Pakistan Author



GDP growth, Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Government Expenditure on Education, Current Health Expenditure, School Enrollment, Secondary


Over 48 years (1975-2022), this research analyzes Pakistan's socio-economic inclusion and sustainable growth using data from PBS, SBP, and WDI. It examines GDP growth alongside healthcare expenditure, capital formation, education spending, employment, and school enrollment. Employing ARDL models and tests, it explores short and long-term dynamics, emphasizing the significance of healthcare, capital investment, education, and employment. The rigorous methodology ensures reliability, offering evidence-based policy recommendations crucial for fostering inclusive and enduring economic development. Additionally, it evaluates the impact of government expenditure on education and employment dynamics, highlighting their role in shaping economic progress and gender inclusivity in education.


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How to Cite

Atif, M. ., Khan, A. A. ., Sibghatullah, Ahmed, S. ., & Yaqoob, M. . (2024). Socio-Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Economic Growth: An Evidence from Pakistan. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 13(1).

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