Empowering Women through Education: A Study on Reducing Violence against Women in Lahore

Authors

  • Benish Naseem Ph.D. Scholar, University of Education Lahore, Pakistan Author
  • Aftab Anwar Assistant Professor, University of Education Lahore, Pakistan Author
  • Muhammad Awais Anwar Assistant Professor, University of Education Lahore, Pakistan Author
  • Muhammad Abrar Ahmad Assistant Professor, University of Education Lahore, Pakistan Author
  • Syed Jaffar Abbas Lecturer, Government Shalimar Graduate College Baghbanpura Lahore, Pakistan Author

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.61506/01.00331

Keywords:

Violence Against Women, Women Education, Women Safety, Polygamous Marriage, Women’s Age, Household Analysis

Abstract

This study using MICS data with 2411 observations explores factors influencing violence against women (VAW) such as women's education (WEDU), safety perceptions (WS), polygamous marriage (PM), and age (WA) to inform targeted interventions. Utilizing data from 2,411 observations in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), a logistic regression model is employed to assess the effects of these variables on VAW. The key variables examined include women education (WEDU), women safety (WS), polygamous marriage (PM), and women's age (WA). The analysis reveals that women’s education (WEDU) and women safety (WS) significantly reduce the likelihood of experiencing violence, with coefficients of 0.516 and 0.441, respectively, both statistically significant at the 1% level. Polygamous marriage (PM) is associated with an increased risk of violence (coef. 0.939, p < 0.05). Women’s age (WA) has a negative effect on VAW, although it is marginally significant (coef. -0.114, p = 0.051). This research provides a nuanced understanding of the factors influencing violence against women in Lahore, highlighting the importance of education and safety measures in mitigating violence. The cross-sectional nature of the MICS data limits the ability to infer causality. Future research should employ longitudinal data to better capture the dynamics over time. The findings suggest that enhancing women’s education and safety measures can significantly reduce violence against women. Policymakers should prioritize these areas to create safer and more empowering environments for women.

References

Akhtar, M. (2006). Analysis of the relationship between literacy and women empowerment. An unpublished M.Phil Thesis, Bahawalpur, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur.

Åsling-Monemi, K., Pena, R., Ellsberg, M. C., & Persson, L. Å. (2003). Violence against women increases the risk of infant and child mortality: a case-referent study in Nicaragua. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(1), 10-16.

Bates, L.M. , Schuler, S . R., Islam, F. and Islam, K .(2004). Socio economic factors and processes associated with domestic violence in rural Bangladesh. Journal of International Family Planning Perspectives, 30, (4), 109-122

Campbell .J. (2002). Abuse during pregnancy in Industrialized and developing countries.

Coleman, I. (2004). Gender Disparities, Economic Growth and Islamization in Pakistan.

Government of Pakistan. (1959). Report of the Commission on National Education. Karachi: Ministry of Education.

Government of Pakistan. (2007). Pakistan in the 21st Century: Vision 2030. Islamabad: Planning Commission.

Government of Pakistan. (2009). National Education Policy. Islamabad: Ministry of Education.

Haq, J. M. (2006). The borders and boundaries of community: social cohesion and responses to domestic and racial violence (Doctoral dissertation, Newcastle University).

Heise, G. (1994). Violence against women the hidden health burden. Washington (DC): World Bank.

Heise, L., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2002). Violence by intimate partners. World report on violence and health, 1, 87-113.

Human Rights Watch. (1997). The scope of the problem of violence against women.

Human Rights Watch. (1999). Crime or custom violence against women in Pakistan.

Hussain, I., Adeeb, M.A., Sabiha, H.R., & Safdar, M.A., (2008). Distance Education as a Strategy for Eliminating Gender Disparity in Pakistan. Presented at Fifth-Pan Commonwealth-Forum on Open Learning organized by the Commonwealth of Learning and University of London, at the Institute of Education (IOE), July 13-17, 2008.

Jejeebhoy, S. J. (1995). Women’s education, autonomy, and reproductive behaviour: Experience from developing countries. Oxford University Press.

Jejeebhoy, S.J. (1998). Wife-beating in rural India: A husband’s right. Economic and Political Weekly , 23(15), 855-862.

Joseph, J. (2015). Sexual harassment in tertiary institutions: A comparative perspective. TEMIDA.

Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women's empowerment: A critical analysis of the third millennium development goal 1. Gender & development, 13(1), 13-24.

Khan, A. U., Saboor, A., Hussain, A., Karim, S., Hussain, S. (2015). Spatial and temporal investigation of multidimensional poverty in rural Pakistan. Poverty & Public Policy, A Global Journal of Social Security, Income Aid and Welfare, 7(2), 158–175.

Kishor, S. & Kiersten, j. (2004). Profiling domestic violence a multi-country study. Calverton, Maryland: ORC.

Leach, L. (2013). Participation and equity in higher education: Are we going back to the future? Oxford Review of Education, 39(2), 267–286.

Malik, R., & Rose, P. (2015). Financing education in Pakistan: Opportunities for action. Country case study for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development.

Mazza, D., Dennerstein, L., Garamszegi, C. V., & Dudley, E. C. (2001). The physical, sexual and emotional violence history of middle‐aged women: a community‐based prevalence study. Medical journal of Australia, 175(4), 199-201.

Mehmood, S., Chong, L., & Hussain, M. (2018). Female higher education in Pakistan: An analysis of socio-economic and cultural challenges. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 5(6), 379–397.

Naved, R. T., & Akhtar, N. (2008). Spousal violence against women and suicidal ideation in Bangladesh. Women's health issues, 18(6), 442-452.

Nawaz, M., Ramzan, B., Nadeem, M., Bhatti, G. A., &Nadeem, A. (2017). The influence of higher education in improving women's social status: empirical Empirical evidence from Lahore, Pakistan. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, 5(7), 252–261.

Noreen, G., & Khalid, H. (2012), Gender empowerment through women's higher education: Opportunities and Possibilities. Journal of Research and Reflections in Education,6(1), 50–60.

Richardson, G. E. (2002). The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. Journal of clinical psychology, 58(3), 307-321.

Saleem, H., Shabbir, M. S., & Khan, B. (2019). Re-examining Mmultidimensional poverty in Pakistan: A new assessment of regional variations. Global Business Review, 20(3), 1–18.

Sharma, R., &Afroz, Z. (2014). Women empowerment through higher education. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies (IJIMS), 1(5), 18–22.

Syed, I. (2018). Shall I feed my daughter, or educate her?

Unesco, I. (2020). Basic texts of the 2003 convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage.

World Bank. (2018). World development report 2019: The changing nature of work. The World Bank.

Downloads

Published

2024-06-01

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

Naseem, B. ., Anwar, A. ., Anwar, M. A. ., Ahmad, M. A. ., & Abbas, S. J. . (2024). Empowering Women through Education: A Study on Reducing Violence against Women in Lahore. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 13(2), 303-309. https://doi.org/10.61506/01.00331

Similar Articles

1-10 of 468

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.