Unveiling Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Study of Business Graduates in South Punjab's Higher Education Institutions with a Focus on Gender Moderation

Authors

  • Rana Muhammad Shahid Yaqub Department of Marketing & International Business, Institute of Business Management and Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan Author
  • Shakeela Kausar Department of Management Science, Institute of Business Management and Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan Author
  • Aneeta Rehman Department of Marketing & International Business, Institute of Business Management and Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan Author
  • Zunaira Arif M.Phil Research Scholar, Department of Marketing & International Business, Institute of Business Management and Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan Author

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.61506/01.00050

Keywords:

entrepreneurial attitudes, lack of finance, financial returns, entrepreneurial motivation

Abstract

In underdeveloped countries like Pakistan there is lack of entreprenurial activities.In order to enhance the entreprenurial activity,it is the need of the hour to identify the personal & socio-economic factors that leads towards the creation of new ventures. Current study was an effort to examine the determinants (entrepreneurial attitudes, lack of fiancé, financial returns and entrepreneurial motivation) of entrepreneurial intentions among business graduates of higher education institutions (HEIs) of southern Punjab, Pakistan with moderating role of gender. The study has used quantitative research design. Population of the study was all the business graduates of HEIs of Southern Punjab. Convenience sampling was used to select the respondents from target population. Sample size was 370.A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from respondents.SmartPLS & SPSS software was used for the analysis of collected data. The findings have established significant positive relationship of all determinants with entrepreneurial intentions except attitude. Moreover, the results have shown that gender does not moderate the relationship between determinants and entrepreneurial intentions of business graduates. Future research can be conducted to explore the reasons for such unexpected results. This study has made a significant contribution to the literature and came to the conclusion that there is a dire need to encourage entrepreneurial mind-set among youth and to create awareness and skills that are necessary to create new businesses.

References

Adu, I. N., Boakye, K. O., Suleman, A.-R., & Bingab, B. B. B. (2020). Exploring the factors that mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate students in Ghana. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 14(2), 215-228.

Agbim, K. C., Oriarewo, G. O., & Ijie, N. (2013). The relative importance of spirituality in entrepreneurship development among graduates of Nigerian tertiary institutions. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(4), 25-35.

Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M. M., Ahmad, Z., Shaukat, M. Z., Usman, A., Rehman, W., & Ahmed, N. (2010). Determinants of students’ entrepreneurial career intentions: Evidence from business graduates. European Journal of social sciences, 15(2), 14-22.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Al-Qadasi, N., Zhang, G., Al-Awlaqi, M. A., Alshebami, A. S., & Aamer, A. (2023). Factors influencing entrepreneurial intention of university students in Yemen: The mediating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1111934.

Aziz, N., Friedman, B. A., Bopieva, A., & Keles, I. (2013). Entrepreneurial motives and perceived problems: An empirical study of entrepreneurs in Kyrgyzstan. International Journal of Business, 18(2), 163.

Bagheri, A., & Pihie, Z. A. L. (2015). Factors influencing students' entrepreneurial intentions: The critical roles of personal attraction and perceived control over behavior. The International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology (IJMSIT)(16), 16-28.

Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Singh, S. (1991). On the use of structural equation models in experimental designs: Two extensions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 8(2), 125-140.

Bosma, N., Hill, S., Ionescu-Somers, A., Kelley, D., Levie, J., & Tarnawa, A. (2020). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2019/2020 global report. Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, London Business School, 5-7.

Chaudhuri, S., Agrawal, A. K., Chatterjee, S., & Hussain, Z. (2023). Examining the role of gender on family business entrepreneurial intention: influence of government support and technology usage. Journal of Family Business Management, 13(3), 665-686.

Choo, S., & Wong, M. (2006). Entrepreneurial intention: triggers and barriers to new venture creations in Singapore. Singapore management review, 28(2), 47-64.

Ciptono, W. S., Anggadwita, G., & Indarti, N. (2023). Examining prison entrepreneurship programs, self-efficacy and entrepreneurial resilience as drivers for prisoners' entrepreneurial intentions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 29(2), 408-432.

Dahalan, N., Jaafar, M., & Rosdi, S. A. M. (2015). Attitude and entrepreneurial intention among rural community: The mediating role of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. Paper presented at the SHS Web of conferences.

El-Gohary, H., Sultan, F., Alam, S., Abbas, M., & Muhammad, S. (2023). Shaping sustainable entrepreneurial intentions among business graduates in developing countries through social media adoption: A moderating-mediated mechanism in Pakistan. Sustainability, 15(3), 2489.

Elitas, C. I., Clement, M., & Moulen, S. (2023). The influence of the college environment on the development of entrepreneurial intentions. African Journal of Business Management, 17(1), 13-22.

Elshaer, I. A., & Sobaih, A. E. E. (2023). The Impact of Gender on the Link between Personality Traits and Entrepreneurial Intention: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture. Agriculture, 13(2), 454.

Erkoç, M. F., & Kert, S. B. (2013). A Comparative Study on Entrepreneurship Tendencies and Individual Innovativeness Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers. International Journal of Social Sciences & Education, 3(4).

Fantaye, M. D. (2019). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention among graduating students at Debre Berhan University, Ethiopia. Journal of Investment and Management, 8(1), 25-31.

Farooq, M. S. (2018). Modelling the significance of social support and entrepreneurial skills for determining entrepreneurial behaviour of individuals: A structural equation modelling approach. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 14(3), 242-266.

Farrukh, M., Khan, A. A., Shahid Khan, M., Ravan Ramzani, S., & Soladoye, B. S. A. (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions: the role of family factors, personality traits and self-efficacy. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 13(4), 303-317.

Fatoki, O. O. (2010). Graduate entrepreneurial intention in South Africa: Motivations and obstacles. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(9), 87.

Ferreira, J. J., Raposo, M. L., Rodrigues, R. G., Dinis, A., & Do Paco, A. (2012). A model of entrepreneurial intention: An application of the psychological and behavioral approaches. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(3), 424-440.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.

García-Rodríguez, F. J., Gil-Soto, E., Ruiz-Rosa, I., & Gutiérrez-Taño, D. (2017). Entrepreneurial potential in less innovative regions: the impact of social and cultural environment. European Journal of Management and Business Economics, 26(2), 163-179.

Giacomin, O., Janssen, F., Pruett, M., Shinnar, R. S., Llopis, F., & Toney, B. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions, motivations and barriers: Differences among American, Asian and European students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7, 219-238.

González-López, M. J., Pérez-López, M. C., & Rodríguez-Ariza, L. (2021). From potential to early nascent entrepreneurship: the role of entrepreneurial competencies. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 17(3), 1387-1417.

Gulzar, F., & Fayaz, A. (2019). Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Conceptual Framework. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Management, 8(1), 48.

Gure, G. S. (2017). Gender Influences on the Entrepreneurial Tendencies & Entrepreneurial Attitude of University Students. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 7(8), 746-759.

Henderson, R., & Robertson, M. (2000). Who wants to be an entrepreneur? Young adult attitudes to entrepreneurship as a career. Career development international, 5(6), 279-287.

Hult, G. T. M., Hair Jr, J. F., Proksch, D., Sarstedt, M., Pinkwart, A., & Ringle, C. M. (2018). Addressing endogeneity in international marketing applications of partial least squares structural equation modeling. Journal of International Marketing, 26(3), 1-21.

Hussain, T., Zia-Ur-Rehman, M., & Abbas, S. (2021). Role of entrepreneurial knowledge and personal attitude in developing entrepreneurial intentions in business graduates: a case of Pakistan. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 1-11.

Hyder, A., Azhar, A., Javaid, A., & Rehman, M. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions among business students in Pakistan. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, 5(2).

Iancu, A., Popescu, L., & Popescu, V. (2021). Factors influencing social entrepreneurship intentions in Romania. Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 34(1), 1190-1201.

Jwara, N., & Hoque, M. (2018). Entrepreneurial intentions among university students: A case study of Durban University of Technology. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 24(3), 1-19.

Kabra, K. (2008). Economic Growth of Mizoram: Role of Business & Industry: Concept Publishing Company.

Khalid, A., Chaudhry, N. I., & Kishwer, R. (2023). Business Angels & Entrepreneurial Intentions of Management Students in Pakistan.

Kirkwood, J. (2009). Motivational factors in a push‐pull theory of entrepreneurship. Gender in management: An international journal, 24(5), 346-364.

Kolvereid, L., & Isaksen, E. (2006). New business start-up and subsequent entry into self-employment. Journal of business venturing, 21(6), 866-885.

Krauss, S. I., Frese, M., Friedrich, C., & Unger, J. M. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation: A psychological model of success among southern African small business owners. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 14(3), 315-344.

Krueger Jr, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of business venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432.

Lanivich, S. E., Lyons, L. M., & Wheeler, A. R. (2021). Nascent entrepreneur characteristic predictors of early-stage entrepreneurship outcomes. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 28(7), 1095-1116.

Laukkanen, M. (2022). What lies behind entrepreneurial intentions? Exploring nascent entrepreneurs’ early belief systems. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 28(9), 177-197.

López-Navarro, M. Á., & Segarra Ciprés, M. (2015). Social issues in business education: A study of students' attitudes. Journal of education for business, 90(6), 314-321.

Luca, M. R. (2017). Entrepreneurial personality and entrepreneurial behaviour. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, Series VII: Social Sciences and Law, 10(1), 19-28.

Lunavath, N. (2015). A study on the entrepreneurial intention among student. American Research Journal of Business and Management, 1(1), 1-6.

Ma, S., Wu, X., & Gan, L. (2019). Credit accessibility, institutional deficiency and entrepreneurship in China. China Economic Review, 54, 160-175.

Maheshwari, G. (2021). Factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions the most for university students in Vietnam: educational support, personality traits or TPB components? Education+ Training, 63(7/8), 1138-1153.

Marques, C. S., Ferreira, J. J., Ferreira, F. A., & Lages, M. F. (2013). Entrepreneurial orientation and motivation to start up a business: evidence from the health service industry. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9, 77-94.

Mergemeier, L., Moser, J., & Flatten, T. C. (2018). The influence of multiple constraints along the venture creation process and on start-up intention in nascent entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 30(7-8), 848-876.

Miranda, F. J., Chamorro-Mera, A., & Rubio, S. (2017). Academic entrepreneurship in Spanish universities: An analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurial intention. European research on management and business economics, 23(2), 113-122.

Mohamed, A. N., & Abdullahi, A. O. (2023). Factors Influencing the Entrepreneurial Intentions of Somali Graduate Students. Journal of Somali Studies: Research on Somalia and the Greater Horn of African Countries, 10(1), 97-116.

Nawi, N. C., Mamun, A. A., Nasir, N. A. M., & Muniady, R. (2019). Factors affecting the adoption of social media as a business platform: A study among student entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Vision, 23(1), 1-11.

Naz, S., Hafeez, Z., & Lodhi, I. (2023). Exploring the Entrepreneurial Intention, Expectations of Success and Self-efficacy among the Students of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in Pakistan. Global Educational Studies Review, 8(8), 91-101.

Nguyen, C. (2017). Entrepreneurial intention of international business students in Viet Nam: a survey of the country joining the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 6(1), 7.

Ojiaku, O. C., Nkamnebe, A. D., & Nwaizugbo, I. C. (2018). Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among young graduates: perspectives of push-pull-mooring model. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 8, 1-17.

Ooi, Y. K., & Nasiru, A. (2015). Entrepreneurship education as a catalyst of business start-ups: A study on Malaysian community college students. Asian Social Science, 11(18), 350.

Palalic, R., Ramadani, V., Mariam Gilani, S., Gërguri-Rashiti, S., & Dana, L. P. (2021). Social media and consumer buying behavior decision: what entrepreneurs should know? Management Decision, 59(6), 1249-1270.

Pett, M. A., Lackey, N. R., & Sullivan, J. J. (2003). Making sense of factor analysis: The use of factor analysis for instrument development in health care research: sage.

Rudhumbu, N., Svotwa, D., Munyanyiwa, T., & Mutsau, M. (2016). Attitudes of students towards entrepreneurship education at two selected higher education institutions in Botswana: A critical analysis and reflection. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 5(2), 83.

Saoula, O., Shamim, A., Ahmad, M. J., & Abid, M. F. (2023). Do entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial motivation, and family support enhance entrepreneurial intention? The mediating role of entrepreneurial education. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship(ahead-of-print).

Schoof, U. (2006). Stimulating Youth Entrepreneurship: Barriers and incentives to enterprise start-ups by young people. Retrieved from

Schwarz, E. J., Almer-Jarz, D. A., & Wdowiak, M. A. (2006). A structural model of entrepreneurial intent among students: findings from Austria. Diversity in entrepreneurship, 29-43.

Schwarz, E. J., Wdowiak, M. A., Almer‐Jarz, D. A., & Breitenecker, R. J. (2009). The effects of attitudes and perceived environment conditions on students' entrepreneurial intent: An Austrian perspective. Education+ Training, 51(4), 272-291.

Sesen, H. (2013). Personality or environment? A comprehensive study on the entrepreneurial intentions of university students. Education+ Training, 55(7), 624-640.

Shariff, M. N. M., & Saud, M. B. (2009). An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship on students at institution of higher learning in Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(4), 129-135.

Silva, H., & Nishantha, B. (2023). Personal Factors, Contextual Factors, Entrepreneurial Intention, And Nascent Entrepreneurial Behavior: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 7(4), 1499-1516.

Sivarajah, K., & Achchuthan, S. (2013). Entrepreneurial intention among undergraduates: Review of literature. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(5), 172-186.

Talaş, E., Çelik, A. K., & Oral, İ. O. (2013). The influence of demographic factors on entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students as a career choice: The case of a Turkish university. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 3(12), 22-31.

Tung, D. T., Hung, N. T., Phuong, N. T. C., Loan, N. T. T., & Chong, S.-C. (2020). Enterprise development from students: The case of universities in Vietnam and the Philippines. The International Journal of Management Education, 18(1), 100333.

Ukil, M. I., Ullah, M. S., & Hsu, D. K. (2023). Advancing the model of social entrepreneurial intention: the role of perceived financial security. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship(ahead-of-print).

Valencia-Arias, A., Arango-Botero, D., & Sánchez-Torres, J. A. (2022). Promoting entrepreneurship based on university students' perceptions of entrepreneurial attitude, university environment, entrepreneurial culture and entrepreneurial training. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, 12(2), 328-345.

Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self–efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 31(3), 387-406.

Yıldırım, N., Çakır, Ö., & Aşkun, O. B. (2016). Ready to dare? A case study on the entrepreneurial intentions of business and engineering students in Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 277-288.

Zampetakis, L. A., Bakatsaki, M., Litos, C., Kafetsios, K. G., & Moustakis, V. (2017). Gender-based differential item functioning in the application of the theory of planned behavior for the study of entrepreneurial intentions. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 451.

Downloads

Published

2023-10-20

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

Yaqub, R. M. S. ., Kausar, S. ., Rehman, A. ., & Arif, Z. . (2023). Unveiling Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Study of Business Graduates in South Punjab’s Higher Education Institutions with a Focus on Gender Moderation. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 12(3), 417-429. https://doi.org/10.61506/01.00050

Similar Articles

1-10 of 211

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)