How Does Tourism, Trade Openness and Green Energy Influence CO2 emissions? Evidence from ASEAN Countries


  • Najma Amin M.Phil Scholar, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, The Superior University Lahore, Pakistan Author
  • Saif Ur Rahman Associate Professor, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, The Superior University Lahore, Pakistan Author
  • Sukaina Khalid Faculty of Economics and Commerce, The Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan Author
  • Sadia Idress Faculty of Economics and Commerce, The Superior University Lahore, Pakistan Author



ARDL estimation, Granger Causality, Carbon emissions, tourism, FDI, GDP and trade-openness


This study explores the effects of Tourism (TOU), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Trade Openness (TOP) upon carbon di oxide emissions (CO2). The article has taken top seven tourist destinations in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) through 2000-2020. The approaches used to analyze results are autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and secondly the Granger causality technique. The data is panel data; hence we can also say it is panel ARDL. The outcomes exhibited an interesting relationship between the variables under study. Where, GDP, TOP and TOU were significantly and positively correlated with CO2. Whereas FDI showed huge and negative correlation with CO2. The results of the study showed that in the long run there is a significant association between FDI, TOP and TOU and carbon emissions. The study findings are thoroughly examined, accompanied by analysis of policy implications and recommendations for future research.


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How to Cite

Amin, N. ., Rahman, S. U. ., Khalid, S. ., & Idress, S. . (2024). How Does Tourism, Trade Openness and Green Energy Influence CO2 emissions? Evidence from ASEAN Countries. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 13(2), 71-79.

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