Impact of Internal and External CSR on Job Satisfaction: Mediating Role of Emotional Labor


  • Dr. Nosheen Rafi Head, Department of Commerce, University of Sialkot, Sialkot, Pakistan Author
  • Mudsir Ismail Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Business Administration, University of Sialkot, Sialkot, Pakistan Author
  • Iqra Javed Lecturer, Institute of Business & Management, UET Lahore, Pakistan Author
  • Umbrin Akbar Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Sialkot, Sialkot, Pakistan Author
  • Muddassar Bilal Head, Department of Economics, University of Sialkot, Sialkot, Pakistan Author
  • Amna Ilyas University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Author



Corporate Social Responsibility, Emotional Labor, Job Satisfaction


This research paper seeks to investigate the association between internal and external corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives and their influence on emotional labor and job satisfaction. Through the exploration of these factors, the study provides valuable insights into the potential advantages of CSR initiatives for both organizations and their employees. Specifically, this research underscores the significance of a holistic CSR strategy that takes into account both internal and external initiatives and their effects on emotional labor and job satisfaction. Ultimately, the aim of this research is to offer practical and actionable recommendations for organizations seeking to strengthen their CSR programs and promote employee satisfaction and retention. Smart PLS 3.0 was used to analyze data collected from 142 employees of a major bank in Pakistan, by using purposive sampling. The results revealed that both Internal and External CSR initiatives have a significant positive impact on job satisfaction. Emotional labor was found to mediate the relationship between CSR and job satisfaction, highlighting the importance of emotional labor management in organizations that prioritize CSR initiatives. The findings of this study have practical implications for organizations in terms of the potential benefits of CSR initiatives for employee well-being and job satisfaction. Theoretical implications based on Social Expectation Theory suggest that employee expectations and perceptions of socially responsible behavior are important factors in shaping employee attitudes and behaviors. The originality of this study lies in its focus on the banking sector in Pakistan and the exploration of the relationship between internal and external CSR initiatives, emotional labor, and job satisfaction. While previous studies have investigated the impact of CSR on employee well-being and job satisfaction, this study contributes to the literature by examining the mediating role of emotional labor in the relationship between CSR and job satisfaction. Additionally, this study uses Smart PLS 3.0, a relatively new method in the field of CSR research, to analyze the data. Overall, the combination of the unique context of the study, the mediating role of emotional labor, and the use of advanced statistical techniques adds to the originality and contribution of this study to the existing literature on CSR and employee well-being.


Abdelhakim, A. S., & Agwa, Y. I. (2022). The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in Fast-Food Restaurants in Egypt. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 5(1), 321–340.

Adamopoulos, I. P. (2022). Job satisfaction in public health care sector, measures scales and theoretical background. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 6(2), em0116.

Aggarwal, P., & Singh, R. K. (2023). Employee-level consequences of perceived internal and external CSR: decoding the moderation and mediation paths. Social Responsibility Journal, 19(1), 38-78.

Aktan, O., & Toraman, Ç. (2022). The relationship between Technostress levels and job satisfaction of Teachers within the COVID-19 period. Education and Information Technologies, 27(7), 10429–10453.

Ali, A, Khokhar, B. Sulehri, F. A. (2023). Financial Dimensions of Inflationary Pressure in Developing Countries: An In-depth Analysis of Policy Mix. Journal of Asian Development Studies 12 (3), 1313-1327.

Alim, W. Ali, A., and Minhas, A. S. (2022).Impact of Leverage on the Firm Performance: A Case of Fertilizers Sector of Pakistan. Empirical Economics Letters, 21 (2), 51-61.

Aman-Ullah, A., Aziz, A., Ibrahim, H., Mehmood, W., & Abdullah Abbas, Y. (2022). The impact of job security, job satisfaction and job embeddedness on employee retention: An empirical investigation of Pakistan’s health-care industry. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 16(6), 904–922.

Amin, M. S. (2022). Organizational Commitment, Competence on Job Satisfaction and Lecturer Performance: Social Learning Theory Approach. Golden Ratio of Human Resource Management, 2(1), 40–56.

Aruldoss, A., Berube Kowalski, K., Travis, M. L., & Parayitam, S. (2022). The relationship between work–life balance and job satisfaction: Moderating role of training and development and work environment. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 19(2), 240–271.

Arvidsson, S., Eierle, B., & Hartlieb, S. (2022). Job satisfaction and investment efficiency–Evidence from crowdsourced employer reviews. European Management Journal countries, 29-56.

Audi, M., Ehsan, R., & Ali, A. (2023). Does Globalization Promote Financial Integration in South Asian Economies? Unveiling the Role of Monetary and Fiscal Performance in Internationalization. Empirical Economics Letters, 22(10), 237-248.

Ayad, T. H., & Aliane, N. (2022). Examining the Relationship Among Corporate Social Responsibility, Organisational Performance and Job Satisfaction: Applied Study on Tour Operators. Social Space, 22(2), 23–55.

Beuren, I. M., dos Santos, V., & Theiss, V. (2022). Organizational resilience, job satisfaction and business performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 71(6), 2262–2279.

Bian, J., Liao, Y., Wang, Y.-Y., & Tao, F. (2021). Analysis of firm CSR strategies. European journal of operational research, 290(3), 914-926.

Bu, X., & Chen, L. (2023). From efficiency to legitimacy: the changing logic of internal CSR in emerging multinationals during internationalization. Asian Business & Management, 1-36.

Castaldo, S., Ciacci, A., & Penco, L. (2022). Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility and Job Satisfaction in the Retail Industry: A Systematic Literature Review and Research Agenda. Managing Sustainability: Perspectives From Retailing and Services, 33–55.

Chatzopoulou, E.-C., Manolopoulos, D., & Agapitou, V. (2022). Corporate Social Responsibility and employee outcomes: Interrelations of external and internal orientations with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 179(3), 795–817.

Cheung, T., Graham, L. T., & Schiavon, S. (2022). Impacts of life satisfaction, job satisfaction and the Big Five personality traits on satisfaction with the indoor environment. Building and Environment, 212, 108783.

Crucke, S., Kluijtmans, T., Meyfroodt, K., & Desmidt, S. (2022). How does organizational sustainability foster public service motivation and job satisfaction? The mediating role of organizational support and societal impact potential. Public Management Review, 24(8), 1155–1181.

Dodanwala, T. C., & Santoso, D. S. (2022). The mediating role of job stress on the relationship between job satisfaction facets and turnover intention of the construction professionals. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 29(4), 1777–1796.

Fadel, A., Khrais, H., Bani-Hani, M., & Nashwan, A. J. (2023). The Relationship between Organizational Justice, Responsibility, and Job Satisfaction among Jordanian Nurses.

Faeq, D. K., Ali, B. J., & Akoi, S. (2022a). The Impact of People Related TQM and CSR on Employees Job Satisfaction. UKH Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 1–9.

Faeq, D. K., Ali, B. J., & Akoi, S. (2022b). The Impact of People Related TQM and CSR on Employees Job Satisfaction. UKH Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 1–9.

Farmaki, A., Pappas, N., Kvasova, O., & Stergiou, D. P. (2022). Hotel CSR and job satisfaction: A chaordic perspective. Tourism Management, 91, 104526.

Fathurahman, M. (2022). Path Analysis Between Job Satisfaction And Loyalty With Work Environment And Culture As Explanatory Variables. PRODUKTIF: Jurnal Kepegawaian Dan Organisasi, 1(1), 36–43.

Fernando, A., & Danthanarayana, C. P. (2022). Impact of Internal Corporate Social Responsibility on Employees’ Turnover Intention in the Hotel Sector: The Mediating and Moderating Roles of Job Satisfaction and Work-Life Conflict.

Fute, A., Oubibi, M., Sun, B., Zhou, Y., & Xiao, W. (2022). Work values predict job satisfaction among Chinese teachers during COVID-19: The mediation role of work engagement. Sustainability, 14(3), 1353.

Goetz, N., & Wald, A. (2022). Similar but different? The influence of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and person-job fit on individual performance in the continuum between permanent and temporary organizations. International Journal of Project Management, 40(3), 251–261.

Grabner-Kräuter, S., Tafolli, F., & Breitenecker, R. J. (2023). Consequences of Public Sector Employees’ CSR Perceptions in a Developing Country: Organizational Benefits and Beyond. Public Performance & Management Review, 1-40.

Haitao, N. (2022). Relationship of Challenges, Recognition and Co-Workers to Job Satisfaction (Study of Human Resource Management Literature). Dinasti International Journal of Digital Business Management, 3(2), 356–364.

Hayat, A., & Afshari, L. (2022). CSR and employee well-being in hospitality industry: A mediation model of job satisfaction and affective commitment. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 51, 387–396.

Hu, H., Wang, C., Lan, Y., & Wu, X. (2022). Nurses’ turnover intention, hope and career identity: The mediating role of job satisfaction. BMC Nursing, 21(1), 1–11.

Hu, Y. C., Chiu, Y. J., Yen, G. F., & Ken, Y. W. (2023). Incorporation of the DEMATEL into evaluations of CSR performance in BOT projects. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 40(1), 266-281.

Im, U. L., Hong, W. C. H., Ma, E., Lam, C. C. C., & Zhao, L. (2022). Data on how job satisfaction and perceived value of CSR demotivate undesirable job habits during a crisis. Data in Brief, 44, 108520.

Joseph, S., Jadhav, A., & Vispute, B. (2022). Role of ethical organisational culture on employee job satisfaction: An empirical study. International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, 16(3), 337–354.

Kakkar, S., Kuril, S., Singh, S., Saha, S., & Dugar, A. (2022). The influence of remote work communication satisfaction and CSR association on employee alienation and job satisfaction: A moderated-mediation study. Information Technology & People, ahead-of-print.

Katebi, A., HajiZadeh, M. H., Bordbar, A., & Salehi, A. M. (2022). The relationship between “job satisfaction” and “job performance”: A meta-analysis. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 23(1), 21–42.

Kim, H.-S., Kim, M., & Koo, D. (2022). From teamwork to psychological well-being and job performance: The role of CSR in the workplace. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, ahead-of-print.

Kong, L., Sial, M. S., Ahmad, N., Sehleanu, M., Li, Z., Zia-Ud-Din, M., & Badulescu, D. (2021). CSR as a potential motivator to shape employees’ view towards nature for a sustainable workplace environment. Sustainability, 13(3), 1499.

Luque-Reca, O., García-Martínez, I., Pulido-Martos, M., Burguera, J. L., & Augusto-Landa, J. M. (2022). Teachers’ life satisfaction: A structural equation model analyzing the role of trait emotion regulation, intrinsic job satisfaction and affect. Teaching and Teacher Education, 113, 103668.

Mao, Y., He, J., Morrison, A. M., & Andres Coca-Stefaniak, J. (2021). Effects of tourism CSR on employee psychological capital in the COVID-19 crisis: from the perspective of conservation of resources theory. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(19), 2716-2734.

Miethlich, B., Beliakova, M., Voropaeva, L., Ustyuzhina, O., & Yurieva, T. (2022). Internal Corporate Policy: CSR and Employee Satisfaction. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 1–15.

Murshed, F., Cao, Z., Savitskie, K., & Sen, S. (2022). Ethical CSR, Organizational Identification, and Job Satisfaction: Mediated Moderated Role of Interactional Justice. Social Justice Research, 1–28.

Pratama, E. N., Suwarni, E., & Handayani, M. A. (2022). The Effect Of Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment On Turnover Intention With Person Organization Fit As Moderator Variable. Aptisi Transactions on Management (ATM), 6(1), 74–82.

Rahaman, M. A., & Uddin, M. S. (2022). The Effect of Promotion and Job Training on Job Satisfaction of Employees: An Empirical Study of the SME Sector in Bangladesh. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 9(2), 255–260.

Rahma, A. D. (2023). The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Employee Performance with Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement as Mediation Variables (Study on employees of PT. Salim Ivomas Pratama Tbk PKS Sungai Dua in Pekanbaru, Riau). SENTRALISASI, 12(1), 41–58.

Shan, B., Liu, X., Gu, A., & Zhao, R. (2022). The effect of occupational health risk perception on job satisfaction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(4), 2111.

Silva, P., Moreira, A. C., & Mota, J. (2023). Employees’ perception of corporate social responsibility and performance: The mediating roles of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational trust. Journal of Strategy and Management, 16(1), 92–111.

Spector, P. E. (2022). Job satisfaction: From assessment to intervention. Routledge.

Virador, L. B., & Chen, L. F. (2023). Does an (in) congruent corporate social responsibility strategy affect employees' turnover intention? A configurational analysis in an emerging country. Business Ethics, the Environment & Responsibility, 32(1), 57-73.

Winkelhaus, S., Grosse, E. H., & Glock, C. H. (2022). Job satisfaction: An explorative study on work characteristics changes of employees in Intralogistics 4.0. Journal of Business Logistics, 43(3), 343–367.

Zambrano, H. Y. L., Jaraba, A. O., Roldán, L. S., & Florencio, B. P. (2022). Proposal for a CSR model on the dimensions of employee job satisfaction. Leveraging New Business Technology for a Sustainable Economic Recovery, 61.







How to Cite

Rafi, N. ., Ismail, M. ., Javed, I. ., Akbar, U. ., Bilal, M. ., & Ilyas, A. . (2023). Impact of Internal and External CSR on Job Satisfaction: Mediating Role of Emotional Labor. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 12(3), 547-557.

Similar Articles

11-20 of 207

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)