Investigating How the Perception of Appraisal Politics and Bias Influence Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, with Trust Playing a Moderating Role among Employees


  • Raja Mazhar Hameed National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan Author
  • Farah Bashir Army Public College of Management Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan Author
  • Nida Zahid Department of Business Studies, Bahria University Islamabad, Pakistan Author
  • Abdul Rafae Mazhar Raja Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited, Islamabad, Pakistan Author



Performance Appraisal, Biasness, Perception, Politics, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Trust


Performance appraisals are regular review of an employee’s occupation performance and overall share to a company. Also known as an "annual review", "performance review or evaluation", or "employee estimation or employee appraisal". A performance appraisal evaluates an employee’s skills, achievements and growth, or shortcoming thereof. Organizations use performance appraisals to give their employees feedback of their work and to amend wage increases and bonuses, as well as promotion or termination from the job proposition. They can be conducted at any given time but tend to be annual, semi-annual or quarterly. This study is related to effects of performance appraisal politics and biasness on job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior of employees with moderating role of trust in pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan in Rawalpindi and Islamabad Regions. For the purpose of finding the relationship and impact of variables, an adopted questionnaire was distributed among different employees of the pharmaceutical companies located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Out of 500 a total of 261 respondents returned the questionnaires with authentic data. The sample size was drawn from the population of pharmaceutical companies’ employees using convenience sampling technique.  Data was analyzed through SPSS 20.0 for this study and results were inferred using reliability test, regression analysis, Pearson correlation and one-way ANOVA tests. Results of the study show that there is a significant positive relationship between biasness in performance appraisal and perception of appraisal politics, which influence negatively job satisfaction and organization citizenship behavior variables, whereas, variable Trust plays a positive moderating role in the relationship between biasness in performance appraisal, perception of performance appraisal politics, and both job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior.


Avey, J.B., T.S. Wernsing, and F. Luthans. (2008). Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 44, 48–70.

Ayoko, O. B., & Pekerti, A. A. (2008). The mediating and moderating effects of conflict and communication openness on workplace trust. International Journal of Conflict Management, 19(4), 297-318.

Babcock-Roberson, M.E., and O.J. Strickland. (2010). The relationship between charismatic leadership, job engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Psychology 144, 313–26.

Bae, K. B. (2023). The differing effects of individual-and group-based pay for performance on employee satisfaction: the role of the perceived fairness of performance evaluations. Public Management Review, 25(3), 601-619.

Barbieri, M., Micacchi, L., Vidè, F., & Valotti, G. (2023). The performance of performance appraisal systems: A theoretical framework for public organizations. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 43(1), 104-129.

Boswell, W. R. & Boudreau, J. W. (2002). Separating The Developmental and Evaluative PA Uses. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16, 391-412.

Brayfield, A. H., & Rothe, H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of applied psychology, 35(5), 307.

Brefo-Manuh, A. B., & Anlesinya, A. (2023). Performance appraisal justice and work attitudes of health-care workers in Ghana. European Journal of Training and Development, 47(1/2), 24-42.

Bretz, R.D. Jr, Milkovich, G.T. and Read, W. (1992). The current state of PA research and practice: concerns, directions, and implications. Journal of Management, 18, pp. 321-52.

Brown, M., Hyatt, D., & Benson, J. (2010). Consequences of the PA experience. Personnel Review, 39(3),375-396.

Bryman, A. (2004). Qualitative research on leadership: A critical but appreciative review. The leadership quarterly, 15(6), 729-769.

Christian, M.S., A.S. Garza, and J.E. Slaughter. 2011.jobengagement: A quantitative review and test of its relations with task and conceptual performance. Personnel Psychology 64: 89–136. Crawford, E.R., J.A. LePine,

Cobb, A. T. & Frey, F. M. (1996). The Effects of Leader Fairness and Pay Outcomes on Superior/Subordinate Relations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1401-1426.

Cohen, L. M., & Morrison, L. (2004). K.(2000) Research Methods in Education. London (UK) Routledge. Hodges, CB.

Cohen-Charash, Y. & Spector, P. E. (2001). The Role of Justice In Organizations: a Meta-Analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 278-321.

Conway, J.M. (1999). Distinguishing contextual performance from task performance for managerial jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 3-13.

Cropanzano, R. and Folger, R. (1996). Procedural justice and employee motivation, in Steers, R.M., Porter, L.W. and Bigley, G.A. (Eds), Motivation and Leadership at Work, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp. 72-83.

Dean, J.W. Jr., Brandes, P. and Dharwadkar, R. (1998). Organizational cynicism, Academy of Management Review, 23, 341-52.

Dhanabhakyam, M., & Fahad, K. P. (2023). Influence of performance appraisal system in private sector banks on employee morale. IJAR, 9(2), 284-288.

Dulebohn, J. H., & Ferris, G. R. (1999). The role of influence tactics in perceptions of performance appraisal‟ fairness. Academy of Management Journal., 42, 288-303.

Eren, O. (2023). Potential in-group bias at work: Evidence from performance evaluations. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 206, 296-312.

Ferris, G. R. & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Perceptions of Organizational Politics. Journal of Management, 18, 93-116.

Ferris, G. R., Russ, G. S., & Fandt, P. M. (1989). Politics in Organizations in Giacalone, R. A. & Rosenfeld, P. (Eds). Impression Management in the Organization. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ: 143-70.

Ferris, G.R. and Judge, T.A. (1991). Personnel/human resources management: a political influence perspective”, Journal of Management, 17, 447-88.

Fletcher, C. (2001). PA and management: The developing research agenda. Journal of Jobal and Organizational Psychology, 74(1), 473-487.

Fried, Y. and Tiegs, R.B. (1995). Supervisors’ role conflict and role ambiguity differential relations with performance ratings of subordinates and the moderating effect of screening ability”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 282-91.

Gandz, J. and Murray, V.V. (1980). The experience of workplace politics. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 237-51.

George, J.M. and Brief, A.P. (1992). Feeling Good – Doing Good: A Conceptual Analysis of the Mood at Work–Organizational Relationship, Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310–29.

Ghazi, K. M., El-Said, O., Salem, I. E., & Smith, M. (2023). Does performance appraisal legitimacy predict employee sabotage and innovative behaviors? The mediating role of performance appraisal satisfaction. Tourism Management Perspectives, 47, 101117.

Green, C., & Heywood, J. S. (2008). Does performance pay increase job satisfaction? Economica, 75(300), 710-728.

Green, F. (2004). Job intensification, discretion and the decline in wellbeing at work. Eastern Economic Journal, 30(4), 615-625.

Gürbüz & Dikmenli , (2007). PA Biases In A Public Organization: An Empirical Study, Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi(13) / 1, 108-138

Gurbuz, S., & Dikmenli, O. (2007). Performance appraisal in public organizations: An empirical study. Magazine of Management Practice, 13(1), 108-138.

Haass, O., Akhavan, P., Miao, Y., Soltani, M., Jan, T., & Azizi, N. (2023). Organizational citizenship behaviour on organizational performance: A knowledge-based organization. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 15(1), 85.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5): Prentice hall Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Hamermesh, D. S. (2001). The changing distribution of job satisfaction. The Journal of Human Resources, 36(1), 1- 30.

Hamidi, A. B. (2023). The Impacts of Performance Appraisal on Employee’s Job Satisfaction and Organizational Behavior. Ilomata International Journal of Social Science, 4(3), 466-480.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement and business outcomes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268-279.

Hartika, A., Fitridiani, M., & Asbari, M. (2023). The Effect of Job Satisfaction and Job Loyalty on Employee Performance: A Narrative Literature Review. Journal of Information Systems and Management (JISMA), 2(3), 9-15.

Heywood, J. S., & Wei, X. (2006). Performance, pay and job satisfaction. Journal of Industrial Relations, 48(4):523-540.

Ismail, A., Sieng, L. W., Raduan, N. S. M., & Mohamed, N. A. K. (2023). Relationship Between Managers’ Political Motives In Performance Appraisal Systems And Work Outcomes. IPN Journal Of Research And Practice In Public Sector Accounting And Management, 8(1), 87-102.

Judge, T. A., & Klinger, R. (2008). Job satisfaction: Subjective well-being at work.

June M.L. Poon, (2004). Effects of PA politics on job satisfaction and turnover intention, Personnel Review, 33, 3, 322 – 334

Kacmar, K. M., Bozeman, D. P., Carlson, D. S. & Anthony, W. P. (1999). A Study of the Perceptions of Organizational Politics Model: Replication and Extension. Human Relations, 52, 383-416.

Kelly, J. P., Gable, M., &Hise, R. T. (1981). Conflict, Clarity, Tension and Satisfaction in Chain Store Manager Roles. Journal of Retailing, 57, 27-42.

Kidwell, R.E. Jr. and Bennett, N. (1993). Employee propensity to withhold effort: a conceptual model to intersect three avenues of research. Academy of Management Review, 18, 429-56.

Kinicki, A., &Kreitner, R. (2007). Organizational Behavior, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Koys, D. J. (2001). The efforts of employee satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover on organizational effectiveness, a unit-level, longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 54(1), 101-114.

Kraiger, Kurt, and Kavin J. Ford. 2007. The expanding role of workplace training: Themes and trends influencing training research and practice. In Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology, ed. L.L. Koppes, 281–309. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lefkowitz, J. (2000). The Role of Interpersonal Affective Regard in Supervisory Performance Ratings: A Literature Review and Proposed Causal Model’, Journal of Jobal and Organizational Psychology, 73, 67–85.

Levy, P.E. and Williams, J.R. (2004) ‘The Social Context of PA: A Review and Framework for the Future. Journal of Management, 30, 881–905.

Lewin, K. (1936), Principles of Topological Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Lewis, J., &Weigert, A. (1985). Trust as a social reality. Social Forces, 63, 967-985.

Linz, S. J. (2003). Job satisfaction among Russian employees. International Journal of Manpower, 24(6), 626-652.

Locke, E., & Latham, G. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.

Longenecker, C.O., Sims, H.P. Jr. and Gioia, D.A. (1987). Behind the mask: the politics of employee appraisal. Academy of Management Executive, 1, 183-93.

Lusch, R. F., & Serpkenci, R. R. (1990). Personal Differences, Job Tension, Job Outcomes and Store Performance: A Study of Retail Store Managers. Journal of Marketing, 54, 85-101.

Maxwell, G. & Steele, G. (2003). Organizational Commitment: A Study of Managers in Hotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 15, 362-369. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20, 709-734.

Miceli, M.P., I. Jung, J.P. Near, and D.B. (1991). Greenberger. Predictors and Outcomes of Reactions to Pay-for-Performance Plans. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 1991, 508-521.

Mowday, R.T., Porter, L.W. and Steers, R.M. (1982). Employee-Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover, Academic Press, New York, NY.

Mugenda, A. G. (2008). Social science research: Theory and principles. Nairobi: Applied.

Murphy, K. R., & Cleveland, J. N. (1991). PA: an organizational perspective, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA.

Murphy, K. R., & Cleveland, J. N. (1995). Understanding PA. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Murphy, K., & DeNisi, A. (2023). New approaches to dealing with performance management: getting rid of performance appraisals is not the answer. IIM Ranchi journal of management studies, 2(2), 143-158.

Neuman, W. L. (2000). The meanings of methodology. Social research methods, 60-87.

Noonan, L., and Sulsky, L.M. “Study Of Frame-Of-Reference And Behavioural Observation Training On Alternative Training Effectiveness Criteria İn A Canadian Military Sample”, Human Performance, 14, 2001. 3-26.

Noor, N., Beram, S., Yuet, F. K. C., Gengatharan, K., & Rasidi, M. S. M. (2023). Bias, Halo Effect and Horn Effect: A Systematic Literature.

Olson, B.J., Nelson, D.L., & Parayitam, S. (2006). Managing aggression in organizations: what leaders must know? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27, 384–398.

Organ, D. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good solider syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Organ, D., P.M. Podsakoff, and S.B. MacKenzie. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Pearce, J. L. and Gregersen, H. B. (1991). Task interdependence and extrarole behavior: A test of the mediating effects of felt responsibility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 838-844.

Pepple, D. G., & Ambilichu, C. A. (2023). Performance appraisal and employee commitment: The mediating role of job satisfaction. European Management Review.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S.B, Paine, J. B., and Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A Critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26, 513-561.

Podsakoff, P.M., & MacKenzie, S.B. (1994). Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research, 31, 351-363.

Poon, J. M. (2004). Effects of performance appraisal politics on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Personnel review, 33(3), 322-334.

Pulakos, Elaine D. and Wexley, Kenneth N. (1983). The Relationship among Perceptual Similarity, Sex, and Performance Ratings in Manager-Subordinate Dyads”, Academy of Management Journal, 26 (1), 1983, 129-139.

RamuduBhanugopan, KhaledAladwan, Alan Fish. 2013. A structural equation model for measuring HRM practices in the Jordanian organisations. International Journal of Organizational Analysis 21, 4, 565-587.

Roch, S.G and O'Sullivan, B. J. (2003). Frame Of Reference Rater Training İssues: Recall,

Time And Behavior Observation Training”. International Journal of Training & Development, 7(2), 2003, 93-107.

Rogers, J. D., Clow, K. E., &Kash, T. J. (1 of Services Marketing, 8(1), 14-26.

Roscoe, J. T. (1975). Fundamental research statistics for the behavioral sciences [by] John T. Roscoe.

Schneider, B., Gunnarson, S.K. and Wheeler, J.K. (1992). The role of opportunity in the conceptualization and measurement of job satisfaction”, in Cranny, C.J., Smith, P.C. and Stone, E.F. (Eds), Job Satisfaction: How People Feel About Their Jobs and How It Affects Their Performance, Lexington Books, New York, NY, pp. 53-68.

Shah, S. S. H., Aziz, J., Jaffari, A. R., Waris, S., Ejaz, W., Fatima, M., & Sherazi, S. K. (2012). Impact of Stress on Employee’s Performance: A Study on Teachers of Private Colleges of Rawalpindi. Asian Journal of Business Management, 4(2), 101-104.

Shair, W., Tayyab, M., Nawaz, M., & Ahmed, S. U. (2023). Tax Evasion in Pakistan’s Digital Era: An Analysis of Drivers from World Value Survey. Business Review of Digital Revolution, 3(2).

Shair, W., Tayyab, M., Nawaz, S., & Amjad, K. (2023). Digital divide in Pakistan: Barriers to ICT adoption. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 12(2), 243-252.

Shair, W., Waheed, A., Kamran, M. M., & Kubra, N. (2022). Digital Divide in Pakistan: Barriers to ICT Usage among the Individuals of Pakistan. Journal of Economic Impact, 4(3), 196-204.

Shair, W., Zahra, T., Tayyab, M., & Kubra, N. (2022). The Impact of the Digital Divide on Wage Gaps among Individuals in Pakistan. Journal of Policy Research, 8(4), 97-107.

Smith, C.A., Organ, D.W. and Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: its nature and antecedents”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 653-63.

Solomonson A. and Lance C., (1997). Study of the Relationship between True Halo and

Halo Effort in Performance Ratings. Journal of Academic Applied Psychology, 82 (5),1997, 665–674.

Spector, P. E. (1986). Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work. Human Relations, 39(11), 1005-1017.

Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sanchez, J. I., O’Driscoll, M., Sparks, K. et al. (2002). Locus of control and well-being at work: How generalizable are western findings? Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 453-466.

Swailes, S. (2002). Organizational Commitment: A Critique of the Construct and Measures. International Journal of Management Reviews, 4, 155-178.

Swanepoel, B., Erasmus, B., van Wyk, M. and Schenk, H. (2000), South African OCB: Theory and Practice, Juta and Company, Cape Town.

Tella, A., Ayeni, C. & Popoola, S. (2007). Job Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (E-Journal), 118.

Tewksbury, R. & Higgins, G. E. (2006). Prison Staff andjobStress: The Role of Organizational and Emotional Influences. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 30, 247-266.

Thomas, M., & Maheswari, G. (2023). An Empirical Relationship Between Performance Appraisal and Promotion. International journal of economic perspectives, 17(3), 1-6.

Thurston Jr, P. W. &McNally, L. (2010). Justice Perceptions of PA Practices. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25, 201-228.

Tziner, A., Manor, R. W., Vardl, N., & Brodman, A. (2008). The personality dispositional approach to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Psychological Reports, 103, 435-442.

Ullah Bukhari, Z., & Ali, U. (2009). Relationship between organizational citizenship behavior & counterproductive work behavior in the geographical context of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(1), 85.

Uma, S., & Roger, B. (2003). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. book.

UyargilCavide, İşletmelerde Performans Yönetimi Sistemi, İstanbul: İ.Ü. İşletme

FakültesiYayınları, 1994.

Valle, M., & Perrewe´, P. L. (2000). Do politics perceptions relate to political behaviors? Tests of an implicit assumption and expanded model. Human Relations, 53, 359-386.

Vigoda, E. (2000). Organizational politics, job attitudes, and job outcomes: exploration and implications for the public sector. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57, 326-47.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Job and motivation. New York: Wiley.

Waal, A.A.d. (2003). Behavioral Factors Important for the Successful Implementation and Use of Performance Management Systems. Management Decision, 41, 688–97.







How to Cite

Hameed, R. M. ., Bashir, F. ., Zahid, N. ., & Raja, A. R. M. . (2023). Investigating How the Perception of Appraisal Politics and Bias Influence Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, with Trust Playing a Moderating Role among Employees. Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), 12(4), 189-204.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 199

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.